140. He said, “Shall I seek for you a god other than God, when He has favored you over all other people?”
141. Remember how We saved you from Pharaoh’s people, who subjected you to the worst of sufferings-killing your sons and sparing your women. In that was a tremendous trial from your Lord.
142. And We appointed to Moses thirty nights, and completed them with ten; and thus the time appointed by his Lord was forty nights. And Moses said to his brother Aaron: “Take my place among my people, and be upright, and do not follow the way of the mischief-makers.”
143. And when Moses came to Our appointment, and his Lord spoke to him, he said, “My Lord, allow me to look and see You.” He said, “You will not see Me, but look at the mountain; if it stays in its place, you will see Me.” But when his Lord manifested Himself to the mountain, He turned it into dust, and Moses fell down unconscious. Then, when he recovered, he said, “Glory be to you, I repent to you, and I am the first of the believers.”
144. He said, “O Moses, I have chosen you over all people for My messages and for My Words. So take what I have given you, and be one of the thankful.”
145. And We inscribed for him in the Tablets all kinds of enlightenments, and decisive explanation of all things. “Hold fast to them, and exhort your people to adopt the best of them. I will show you the fate of the sinners.”
146. I will turn away from My revelations those who behave proudly on earth without justification. Even if they see every sign, they will not believe in it; and if they see the path of rectitude, they will not adopt it for a path; and if they see the path of error, they will adopt it for a path. That is because they denied Our revelations, and paid no attention to them.
147. Those who deny Our revelations and the meeting of the Hereafter-their deeds will come to nothing. Will they be repaid except according to what they used to do?
148. In his absence, the people of Moses adopted a calf made from their ornaments-a body which lowed. Did they not see that it could not speak to them, nor guide them in any way? They took it for worship. They were in the wrong.
149. Then, when they regretted, and realized that they had erred, they said, “Unless our Lord extends His mercy to us, and forgives us, we will be among the losers.”
150. And when Moses returned to his people, angry and disappointed, he said, “What an awful thing you did in my absence. Did you forsake the commandments of your Lord so hastily?” And he threw down the tablets; and he took hold of his brother’s head, dragging him towards himself. He said, “Son of my mother, the people have overpowered me, and were about to kill me; so do not allow the enemies to gloat over me, and do not count me among the unjust people.”
Gabriel is going back into time to show how unappreciated some of the Jews were after they were freed from Moses. They wanted to worship a god they could see, as the Egyptians had. So God asked a rhetorical question about remembering when He saved the people from slavery and genocide. He appointed Moses and Arron in charge of these people after wandering the desert for a place to live for 40 days. (30+10).
Muhammad is being told that Moses asked to see the Lord, and the Lord told him to look upon a mountain, that was there one minute and crumbled to the ground the next in an earthquake. Moses fell down unconsciousness so taken aback at the power of God. God then told Moses that he was chosen amongst many people to hear the message and bring it to the people so that they may establish rules to be on the straight path.
Moses was given the revelations that provided enlightenment for himself and his people (ten commandments), with a promise from God that He will make things harder for those who turn away from his revelations in arrogance. They will be shut out from God because they did not believe and go down a darker path that leads them to destruction of themselves, because they were too arrogant and did not listen to Moses. Muhammad is reminded that those who turn away from God, will not enjoy the hereafter.
While Moses was absent receiving words of wisdom from God, the Children of Israel made a calf out of gold jewelry and ornaments, to worship as a god. Gabriel asks Muhammad a rhetorical question about how they could not see that this calf was not a god, could not talk, nor care for their affairs in life?
Eventually some of them regretted it as Moses scolded them and SOME asked for Mercy. Muhammad is told how passionate and angry Moses became as he threw down the tablets, dragging his brother Aaron over to ask what happened. Aaron then told Moses the truth, that they were trying to overpower and kill him as he tried to stop them from making an idol.
Give the people of Israel these instructions, which apply both to native Israelites and to the foreigners living in Israel. “If any of them offer their children as a sacrifice to Molech, they must be put to death. The people of the community must stone them to death.
This is an ancient Canaanite god named “Molech” from the land of Canaan that took child sacrifices in exchange of power and wealth. God is not a jealous God, He was guiding humans to stop this evil worship from beginning again.